German History in South Australia

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1838—1914: German Settlement In South Australia
1850s: The Germans In South Australia
1850—1879: The Germans In Adelaide
1840s: Witchcraft! – And Visions Of The Devil In SA
1838—1990: The Issue Of Loyalty – South Australian Germans
1890s: The Interests Of The German Community
World War I: The Germans – State's First Nationalists
World War I: When Torrens Island was a Concentration Camp
1917: Nomenclature Act – 69 Place Names Of German Origin
World War II: South Australia's Germans
Insight: The German Experience in South Australia
Insight: Folklore of the German People in South Australia
Insight: The Attitudes of Germans in SA to Federation
Insight: Democratic Rights of Australians of Non British Decent
Insight: Resource Material on South Australian Germans

By Dr Ian Harmstorf OAM BVK

Dr Ian Harmstorf OAM BVK, former President of the South Australian German Association, is the state's foremost authority of the German contribution to South Australia. With his forebears coming from Hamburg in the 1880s, Harmstorf experienced as a child the demonisation of all things German during World War II. This led him to his research on the Germans in South Australia, a quest which has taken him to Germany as well as all over South Australia.

Harmstorf who lectured for many years at the University of Adelaide has a Doctorate of Philosophy in History, a Masters Degree and has for many years in all aspects of the media promoted the German contribution to the History and Heritage of South Australia.

As Harmstorf has pointed out there may be some overlap in some of the articles for they were written over many years for a variety of purposes. This has the advantage, however, of making each article complete in itself and students and others will find the subject matter complete within each topic.

1838—1914: German Settlement In South Australia

Germans have comprised a significant part of the population of South Australia almost since the State's foundation. This has been variously estimated at between 7% and 10% until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. The first British setters arrived in South Australia in 1836. Some years earlier in 1817 in Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm III had made the first moves to unite all the Protestants in his Kingdom in a Union Church by the introduction of a common official liturgy. This was not entirely successful and many congregations continued to use the old Lutheran form of worship. In 1830 Friedrich Wilhelm ordered that all congregations should use the church order. Pastors who did not conform were sent to prison and their goods confiscated. Parishioners who followed the old liturgy found it impossible to hold services or have their children baptised and confirmed.

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1850s: The Germans In South Australia

By the year 1855 Germans and their children already constituted over 8% of the population of South Australia. The early German settlers who had emigrated to South Australia as early as 1838, only two years after the foundation of the province, were followed by many others. The first German settlers had come because they were suffering religious persecution in their homeland. Later settlers came to enjoy the freedom, the sun and the economic prosperity of the new colony. Many came because they had friends or relatives already in the province.

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1850—1879: The Germans In Adelaide

By the year 1850 Germans and their children already constituted some 10% of the population of South Australia. Today I should like to look at two particular aspects of German immigration into Adelaide: the rights of Germans as citizens and secondly, to try and illustrate how the German community was in every sense, disunited. Unlike it was perceived by many British-Australians, it was anything but monolithic.

The 1850s were politically important years for the German settlers. Two German newspapers had been launched, Die Deutsche Post (The German Post) and Deutsche Zeitung für Südaustralien, (German Newspaper for South Australia) and a German Hospital had been opened. The Liedertafel started as did the famous Brunswick Brass Band. Der Deutsche Club (German Club) began in 1854 and was to flourish as a centre of German culture and learning until 1907. German miners from the Harz Mountains were active in the colony's copper fields while German smelters brought their skills of how to smelt with timber to the Glen Osmond and the Burra mines. In the 1850s numerous German silver and goldsmiths arrived in the colony to settle in Adelaide, as did cabinet and piano makers.

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1840s: Witchcraft! – And Visions Of The Devil In SA

Witchcraft: A European phenomenon of Medieval times? No, it flourished in South Australia only last century, and may still persist today. In this article on our German settlers, Adelaide historian, Dr Ian Harmstorf, discusses some of the beliefs, both sacred and profane, of the superstitious country folk who came here from Prussia.

Along with their cakes, carts, culture and religion, the Germans brought to South Australia a little-publicised aspect of their European heritage-witchcraft!

Exactly when witchcraft came to the new colony is impossible to determine, but the knowledge necessary to practise the black art is believed to have been brought here by at least 1842.

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1838—1990: The Issue Of Loyalty – South Australian Germans

'True Germans ... are always highly patriotic South Australians' [1] said C. Krichauff in the Australische Zeitung (Australian Newspaper) in 1896. Like most Germans – the term Germans is used in the most general sense to include all those of German birth or ethnic affiliation – he considered that a clear distinction could be made between a cultural German and a political South Australian. Three years later the Boer War suggested that this assumption was untrue. World War I confirmed it. This paper attempts to trace the history of the relationship in South Australia between German-Australians and British-Australians.

Under the leadership of Pastor August Kavel, German-Lutherans had initially settled near Adelaide at a place they named Klemzig (after a village situated in the then Prussian province of Brandenburg). A great deal is made of the fact that the German-Lutherans under Pastor Kavel were refugees from religious persecution. However, under a Prussian Cabinet Order of 1834, the possible gaoling and confiscation of the goods of dissident pastors who insisted on using the 'Old Liturgy' had ceased, after only four years in force. [2] Nonetheless, the ban on the use of the 'Old Liturgy' still existed and as such it could not be used in churches because Lutheranism was a state religion whose pastors were in effect civil servants. As a result the 'Old Lutherans' who wanted to use the 'Old Liturgy' or 'Old Agenda' were forced to meet in private. A place to worship in peace was sought. Inquiries were made through Hamburg concerning the possibilities of emigration to Russia to join the Germans on the Volga, or the United States of America. Finally the choice fell on the new province of South Australia. The choice was no doubt expedited by the fact that a loan at an appropriate rate of interest was forthcoming for this purpose from the dissident English philanthropist George Fife Angas.

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1890s: The Interests Of The German Community

German influence in South Australia reached a high point in the 1890s. In the census of 1891 Lutherans numbered over 7% of the South Australian population and it is estimated that German born and their descendants constituted approximately 10% of the total population of the State.

Germans were well respected in the State Parliament, holding seats with large German-Australian populations, a great many of whom were farmers. Martin Basedow, Robert Homburg, Friedrich Krichauff and Theo Scherk were all members of Parliament at some stage during the 1890s and all had a reputation for integrity and hard work. Robert Homburg was the most important member of the German community, owning a law firm and being Attorney General in two ministries from 1890—1892 and 1892—1893.

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World War I: The Germans – State's First Nationalists

'They Did More Than Give us Cakes and Carts'

In this article on the early Germans Adelaide historian, Dr Ian Harmstorf, states his case for correcting the neglect of South Australia's founding settlers.

Dr Harmstorf says the bitterness of two world wars has been allowed to obscure the major contributions the Germans made to the State. Following his explosion last week of the myth that SA's German settlers were all fleeing from religious persecution in their homeland, Dr Harmstorf goes on to expose the unwarranted persecution of World War I.

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World War I: When Torrens Island was a Concentration Camp

A Dark Chapter in South Australia's History

Atrocities during wartime are always committed by the 'other side', or so we are led to believe. But in World War I, Torrens Island, in the Port River, was the site of a concentration camp which earned a notorious reputation for brutality. The story of that camp has been suppressed by the authorities for many years. Now the chance discovery by Adelaide historian Dr Ian Harmstorf of documents in the Barr-Smith Library has revealed the shocking truth about Torrens Island. Much of the detail for this article comes from papers left to the library by the former principal of Adelaide Teachers College, Dr. A. B. Schulz, who died in the 1950s.

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1917: Nomenclature Act – 69 Place Names of German Origin

List of 69 Placenames of German Origin changed by the Nomenclature Act of 1917
(South Australian Government Gazette: 10 January 1918)

Bartsch's Creek to Yedlakoo Creek
Basedow, Hundred of to Hundred of French
Bauer, Cape to Cape Wondoma
Berlin Rock to Panpandie Rock
Bethanien to Bethany
Bismarck to Weeroopa
Blumberg to Birdwood
Blumenthal to Lakkari
Buch(s)felde to Loos
Carlsruhe to Kunden
Ehrenbreitstein to Mt. Yerila
Ferdinand Creek to Ernabella Creek
Mt. Ferdinand to Mt. Warrabillinna
Friedrichstadt to Tangari
Friedrichswalde to Tarnma
Gebhardt's Hill to Polygon Ridge
German Creek to Benare Creek
German Pass to Tappa Pass
Germantown Hill to Vimy Ridge
Gottlieb's Well to Parnggi Well
Grunberg to Karalta
Grunthal to Verdun
Hahndorf to Ambleside
Hasse's Mound to Larelar Mound
Heidelberg to Kobandilla
Hergott Springs to Marree
Hildesheim to Punthari
Hoffnungsthal to Kara Wirira
Homburg, Hundred of to Hundred of Haig
Jaenschtown to Kerkanya
Kaiserstuhl to Mt. Kitchener
Klaebes to Kilto
Klemzig to Gaza
Krawe Rock to Marti Rock
Krichauff, Hundred of to Hundred of Beatty
Krichauff to Beatty
Kronsdorf to Kabminye
 
Langdorf to Kaldukee
Langmeil to Bilyara
Lobethal to Tweedvale
Meyer, Mt. to Mt. Kauto
Muller's Hill to Yandina Hill
Neudorf to Namburdi
Neukirch to Dimchurch
New Hamburg to Willyargoo
New Mecklenburg to Gomersal
Oliventhal to Olivedale
Paech to Hundred of Canna
WIGRA Petersburg to Petersborough
Pflaum to Hundred of Geegeela
Rhine Park to Kongolia
Rhine Hill to Mons
Rhine River N. to The Somme
Rhine River S. to The Marne
Rhine (North), Hundred of to Hundred of Jellicoe
Rhine (South), Hundred of to Hundred of Jutland
Rhine Villa to Cambrai
Rosenthal to Rosedale
Scherk, Hundred of to Hundred of Sturdee
Schoenthal to Boonoala
Schomburgk, Hundred of to Hundred of Maude
Seppelts to Dorrien
Schreiberhau to Warre
Siegersdorf to Bultawilta
Steinfeld to Stonefield
Summerfeldt to Summerfield
Vogelsang's Corner to Teerkoore
Von Doussa, Hundred of to Hundred of Allenby
Wusser's Nob to Karun Nob

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Nomenclature Committees Report On Enemy Place Names
Ordered by the House or Assembly to be printed. November 7th, 1916.
(Estimated cost or printing (570), £3 4s. 8d. S.G.D. 5894/16)

[The 1916 Parliamentary Paper on which the Act was based.]

Enemy Place Names Committee's Recommendations.

The Nomenclature Committee appointed by the Government on August 11th have the honor to report as follows:

We were asked to report on the question of giving effect to the following resolution carried in the House or Assembly on August 2nd, 1916.

That in the opinion or this House the time has now arrived when the names of all the towns and districts in South Australia which indicate foreign enemy origin should be altered, and that such places shall be designated by names either of British origin or South Australian native origin.

The duty of suggesting new names to replace those or enemy origin was also allotted to the committee.

We find, from a careful examination of the official records, that there are on the map or South Australia at least 67 geographical place names of enemy origin, ranging from an important centre like Petersburg to trigonometrical stations and obscure hills in the remote interior. There may be a few not officially recorded which have escaped our notice.

[The Act was gazetted on 10 January 1918 and became law therefore on that day. Many of the names gazetted were not the same as appeared in the Parliamentary Papers as it was said that being aboriginal they were too difficult to spell or say. The names as gazetted would have been changed by the Governor in Cabinet.]

World War II: South Australia's Germans

The experience of South Australia's Germans during World War II, although un­pleasant, was in most cases not as traumatic as during the Great War of 1914—1918. The reason for this was twofold. First, those of German descent, and these constitute the vast majority in the catch-all phrase 'South Australia's Germans', were another generation removed from the land of their forefathers. This together with the disruption suffered to South Australian German cultural and linguistic traditions during the First World War had severely weakened ties to the old homeland. Perhaps the immediate threat to the British-Australians also appeared less. German-born in South Australia had dropped from 2% of the population in 1911 to 0.4% in 1933. Numerically from almost 5,000 to just over 2,000 and one can safely assume, given the lack of German migration between the wars, considerably aged. The number of Lutherans had remained virtually constant at 26,000—27,000, but as a percentage of the total South Australian population had dropped from 6.8% in 1911 to 4.5% in 1933, although it is improbable that the actual number of German descendants, as opposed to Lutherans, would have shown such a dramatic decline as the Lutheran figures suggest.

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Insight: The German Experience in South Australia

Let me begin by quoting a statement made in 1975 by the then Premier of South Australia, Mr Don Dunstan. He said, speaking of minority groups in South Australia, that South Australia's largest minority group, the Germans, had been here for so long that few of them spoke German. The question arises when do you cease to be a German and when do you become an Australian? The people of this large minority group had, in 1975, been here for 137 years, so it is one of the dilemmas of the South Australian German that if you are a Lutheran, or more particularly, have an obvious German name, you may still be looked on as not really Australian. Hence, because of a certain characteristic, for example your name, some individuals are persuaded by the attitude of society to look upon themselves as German, even though they may not see themselves as such, and of course this can cause an identity crisis.

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Insight: Folklore Of The German People In South Australia

The Germans in South Australia have a long and proud history. A few individual Germans had arrived even before the foundation of South Australia as a British colony in 1836, but the first organised group landed two years after the proclamation of the province. The letters they and other early arrivals sent home set in motion a chain of migration that was to bring German migrants to the shores of South Australia until the present day. From the early 1840s until 1920 Germans and their descendants constituted some 10% of the population of South Australia. This large group of non-British settlers, almost twice the percentage of any other Australian colony, was to have a marked impact on the folklore of South Australia.

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Insight: The Attitudes of Germans in SA to Federation

By Pauline Payne and Dr Ian Harmstorf OAM

The principal source of information for this paper on the attitudes of Germans in the South Australian community to Federation proved to be material printed in the South Australian German newspapers. To our knowledge no systematic research on Federation issues had ever been carried out on these papers. Given the importance of the German newspapers a further valuable source of information proved to be biographical information on politician and editor M. P. F. Basedow. Additional biographical material was sought on Basedows' network of contacts in the South Australian community. Speeches by members of parliament who were of German origin were examined but provided only limited material relating to Federation. Lutheran Church journals did not prove to be fruitful sources of material, the newspapers being concerned with church life and administration.

As a result we concentrated our research efforts on the German language newspapers. The material found there is difficult for most Australian researchers to access, being in German, on microfilm and in Gothic script. For this reason we decided to report on the German language newspaper content in some detail in the paper. Translation from German into English was done by Dr Ian Harmstorf OAM.

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Insight: Democratic Rights of Australians of Non British Decent

The first large group of Germans arrived in South Australia as religious refugees in 1838, only two years after the proclamation of the colony. Their homeland had been in the eastern part of Germany (this area is now part of Poland) and they had suffered persecution because of their refusal to use a new prayer book. Although the persecutions were soon to stop, letters written back to Germany told of the economic, religious and political freedom to be found in South Australia and a 'chain migration' was soon in motion. Soon, not only Lutheran congregations were emigrating to the new colony but all types of people from towns and cities as well as villages. By 1900 over 18,000 Germans had come to South Australia.

When war on Germany was declared on 4 August 1914 there was a general feeling in the more educated sections of the community that the loyalty of German settlers should not be discussed or questioned. It was considered that it should be taken for granted. Premier Peake said shortly after the outbreak of hostilities. 'There would be nothing of racial animosity in this State'.

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Insight: Resource Material on South Australian Germans

Manuscripts

(1) Ey, Anna: Memoirs (written circa 1900—1907).
(2) Geue, Johann: Memoirs (written 1923).
(3) Homann, Louise: Memoirs Journal of a Life of Many Moves, translated. Adelaide 1965.
(4) Peltz, Friedrich: Memoirs (written 1989).
(5) Schedlich, Carl: Memoirs (written circa 1900).

19th Century Books

(1) Bergmann, A.: Lebenslauf des ehemaligen Lehrers Adolf Bergmann. Adelaide 1912.
(2) Bergmann, A.: Humoristische Beschreibung der Australischen Kolonie. Tanunda 1895.
(3) Bergmann, A.: Samenkorn in die Herzen von Jung und Alt. Light's Pass 1889.
(4) Cawthorne, A.: Menge the Mineralogist. Adelaide 1859.
(5) Dieseldorff, W. A.: Wegweiser nach Süd-Australien. Hamburg 1849.
(6) Doeger, George: Auswanderer nach Süd-Australien – Ein Rathgeber. Tangermünde 1849.
(7) Gerstäcker, F.: Gesammelte Schriften. Bd. 1—3, Jena 1872.
(8) Gerstäcker, F.: Nord- und Süd-Australien: ein Handbuch für Auswanderer. Dresden und Leipzig 1849.
(9) Gerstäcker, F.: Im Busch: Australische Erzählung. Jena und Leipzig 1864.
(10) Heising, A.: Die Deutschen in Australien. Berlin 1853.
(11) Hunckel, C.: Berichte deutscher Ansiedler in Süd-Australien. Bremen 1845.
(12) Jung, K. E.: Der Weltteil Australien. Prague 1882.
(13) Kauvlers, E.: Seereise nach Süd-Australien am 15. August 1848 von Hamburg. J. E. Schamler, Bautzen 1854.
(14) Listermann, G.: Meine Auswanderung nach Südaustralien und Rückkehr zum Vaterland. Berlin 1851.
(15) Reimer, R. (ed): Süd-Australien. Berlin 1851.

20th Century Books

(1) Bodie, L. et al. (eds): The German Connection. Sesquicentenary Essays on German-Victorian Cross Currents 1835—1985. Victoria 1987.
(2) Borrie, W. D.: Italians and Germans in Australia. Melbourne 1954.
(3) Brauer, A.: Under the Southern Cross. Adelaide 1956.
(4) Buchhorn, Martin (ed): Emigrants to Hahndorf: A Remarkable Voyage from Altona to Port Adelaide, South Australia. The diary of Captain Hahn of the Zebra. Translated with commentary by Lee Kersten, Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide 1989.
(5) Butler, E.: Cork Elms and Controversy at Hahndorf. National Trust, Hahndorf 1985.
(6) Fox, A. L.: Hahndorf. Fox Publishing, Hahndorf 1977.
(7) Harmstorf, I.: The Germans in Australia. Melboume 1985.
(8) Cigler, M.; Harmstorf, I.: The German Experience of Australia 1833—1938. Flinders University of S.A. 1981.
(9) Schwerdtfeger, P. (ed); Homann, L.: Journal of a Life of Many Moves. Adelaide 1956.
(10) Homburg, H.: S.A. Lutherans and Wartime Rumours. Adelaide 1947.
(11) Iwan, W.: Um des Glaubens Willen nach Australien. Breslau 1931.
(12) Lodewyckx, A.: Die Deutschen in Australien. Stuttgart 1932.
(13) Lodewyckx, A.: Die Deutschen in der australischen Wirtschaft. Stuttgart 1938.
(14) Lyng, J.: Non-Britishers in Australia. Melbourne 1927.
(15) Nielsen, George: In Search of Home: The Wends (Sorbs) on the Australian and Texas Frontier. Birmingham Slavonic Monograph No. 1, Birmingham 1978.
(16) Price, C. A.: German Settlers in South Australia. Melbourne 1945.
(17) Renner, H.: Hahndorf. A German Village Under the Southern Cross. Hahndorf 1988.
(18) Schubert, D.: Kavel's People. Adelaide 1985.
(19) Sinthern, Peter S. J.: 53 Jahre Österreichische Jesuiten-Mission in Australien. Wien 1924.
(20) Shemmeld, J. W.: Kruger Jars' n' Fencing Wire. Unknown, circa 1983.
(21) Tampke, J. (ed): Wunderbar Country. Germans Look at Australia 1850—1914. Sydney 1982.
(22) Thiele, C.: Barossa Sketchbook. Adelaide 1968.
(23) Thiele, C.: Heysen's Early Hahndorf. Adelaide 1976.
(24) Vondra, J.: German Speaking Settlers in Australia. Melbourne 1981.
(25) Voigt, J.: Australia-Germany: Two Hundred Years of contacts. Relations and Connections. Inter Nationes, Bonn 1987.
(26) Voigt, J. (ed): New Beginnings. The Germans in New South Wales and Queensland. Stuttgart 1983.
(27) Wade, L.; Fox, A.: Hahndorf Sketchbook. Rigby, Adelaide (Undated).
(28) Wichmann, K. (compiler): German Settlement in South Australia. Resource Booklet, Adelaide 1985.
(29) Young, G.; Harmstorf, I.: Barossa Survey. Adelaide 1977.
(30) Young, G.; Harmstorf, I.: Hahndorf Survey. Adelaide 1981.
(31) Young, G.: Lobethal Survey. Adelaide 1982.

Articles

Some of the older articles will be difficult to obtain but have been listed in case of special interests.
(1) Daly, J.: 'Adolph Leschen, Father of Gymnastics in South Australia' in Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, No. 10, 1982.
(2) Fischer, G.: 'A Great Independent Australian Reich and Nation', Carl Muecke and the 'Forty-Eighters' of the German-Australian Community of South Australia' in Journal of Australian Studies, No. 25, November 1989.
(3) Gemmel, N. G.: 'Some Notes on Ferdinand von Mueller and the Early Settlement of the Bugle Ranges' in South Australian Naturalist, Vol. 49, No. 4, June 1975.
(4) Grope, L. B.: 'The Story of Klemzig, South Australia' in Year Book of the Lutheran Church Adelaide, 1975.
(5) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'German Settlement in South Australia until 1914' in Jupp, J. (ed): The Australian People, Sydney 1988.
(6) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Some Common Misconceptions about South Australia's Germans' in Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, No. 1, 1975.
(7) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'History of the German Association' in 100 Years SAADV 1886—1986, Adelaide 1986 (English and German).
(8) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'True Germans are Patriotic South Australians: South Australian Germans Before 1918' in Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, No. 17, 1989.
(9) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'God Ordered Their Estate: Some Lutheran Traditions in South Australia' in Harmstorf, I.; Schwerdtfeger, P. (eds): The German Experience of Australia 1833—1938, Flinders University, Adelaide 1988.
(10) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'The Trouble with Patriotism. The issue of Loyalty: South Australian Germans 1838—1900' in Proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of von Humboldt Fellows, Flinders University, Adelaide 1980.
(11) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'South Australia's Germans in World War II' in Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, No. 16, 1988.
(12) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'The interests of the German Community in the 1890s in South Australia in the 1890s', Constitutional Museum, Adelaide 1983.
(13) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'The Historic Importance of Hahndorf' in Hahndorf Past Present and Future, Department of Continuing Ed., University of Adelaide, Adelaide 1976.
(14) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Teutons in South Australia' in Tradition, June 1974.
(15) Harmstorf, I.; Marsden, A.: 'The Townscape of Hahndorf' in Environs, October 1976.
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(16) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'German as a Community Language' in S.A. Teachers Journal, No. 5, December 1979.
(17) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'The German Experience in South Australia' in History Forum, July 1981.
(18) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Australians or Aliens?', Constitutional Museum, Adelaide 1984.
(19) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'The Germans in South Australia' in South Australia 1855, Constitutional Museum, Adelaide 1981.
(20) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Unsere Deutsche Vergangenheit' in Das Band – South Australian German Association, March 1988.
(21) Holthouse, E.: 'Reminiscences of the Old Port' in South Australiana, Vol. 20, No. 1, March 1981.
(22) Kraehenbuehl, D.: 'The Life and Works of J. G. D. Tepper FLS and his association with the Field Naturalists Section of the Royal Society of South Australia' in S.A. Naturalist, Vol. 44, No. 2, December 1969.
(23) Lehmann, H.: 'South Australian German Lutherans in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century: a Case of Rejected Assimilation' in Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1981.
(24) McCredie, A. D.: 'German Musical Traditions in South Australia' in Harmstorf, I.; Schwerdtfeger, P. (eds): The German Experience of South Australia 1833—1938. Flinders University, Adelaide 1988.
(25) Meyer, C.: 'The Germans in Victoria 1849—1900' in Journal of the Royal Historical Society, Vol. 68, Pt 1, June 1982.
(26) O'Neill, B.: 'Johannes Menge (1788—1852), Father of Australian Mineralogy' in Harmstorf, I.; Schwerdtfeger, P. (eds): The German Experience of Australia 1833—1938. Flinders University, Adelaide 1988.
(27) Payne, P.: 'Richard Moritz Schomburgk, Second Director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 1865—1891' in Harmstorf, I.; Schwerdtfeger, P. (eds): The German Experience of Australia 1833—1938. Flinders University, Adelaide 1988.
(28) Peake, A. G.: 'Deed Poll Name Changes in South Australia' in The South Australian Genealogist, Vol. 13, No. 4, October 1986.
(29) Price, C. A.: 'German Settlers in South Australia 1838—1900' in Historical Studies in Australia and New Zealand, May 1951.
(30) Sellick, J. W.: 'The Trouble with my Looking Glass: A study of the Attitudes to Germans during the Great War' in Journal of Australian Studies, No. 6, June 1980.
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(31) Schumann, Ruth: '...in the Hands of the Lord: The Society of Jesus in Colonial South Australia' in Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, No. 14, 1986.
(32) Teusner, M.: 'Johann Menge 1788—1852' in Barossa Historic Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 5, 1978.
(33) Tilby Stock, J.: 'South Australia's German Vote in World War I' in Australian Journal of History and Politics, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1982.
(34) Triebel, L. A.: 'The Early South Australian German Settlers' in Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1960.
(35) Triebel, L. A.: 'Johann Menge, an Eccentric German Scientist in South Australia' in Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Vol. 11, No. 2, December 1963.
(36) Triebel, L. A.: 'A Carl Linger Letter' in South Australiana, Vol. II, No. 1, March 1963.
(37) van Abbe, D.: 'The Germans in South Australia' in Australian Quarterly, September 1956.
(38) van Abbe, D.: 'The Germans in South Australia' in German Life and Letters, Vol. 12—13, 1958.
(39) van Abbe, D.: 'The Interests of the South Australian German Press in the Nineteenth Century' in Historical Studies in Australia and New Zealand, No. 31, 1958.
(40) Walker, R.: 'German Language Press and People: South Australia, 1848—1900' in Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Pt. 2, June 1972.
(41) Walker, R.: 'Some Social and Political Aspects of German Settlement to 1914' in Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 61/1, March 1975.
(42) Watts, D. J. B.: 'Captain D. M. Hahn and the First Special Survey' in South Australiana, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1981. (This edition also carries two further unacknowledged articles: 'Letters to G. F. Angas by D. McLaren, J. Menge, C. Flaxman and A. L. C. Kavel 1838—1839', and 'German Colonists as seen by the Press 1839', South Australian Colonial Register.)
(43) Woodburn, S.: 'Heinicke's Grand Orchestra: The Reminiscences of Herrmann Heinicke' in South Australiana, Vol. 22, 1983.

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Thesis

The theses listed below are those that deal specifically with the Germans in South Australia with the exception of music theses. These are of a highly specialised nature but information on them can be obtained through the Music Department of the University of Adelaide. Other theses, especially those dealing with World War I, usually have references to South Australian Germans as do many books on the subject. Pointers to additional sources of information on specific aspects of the Germans in South Australia may be found in either the references or the bibliographies in some of the theses listed above. As new thesis and articles are constantly being written the above lists are by no means definitive.

(1) Bishop, L.: 'Blood is Thicker Than Water', Perception of the German Threat in South Australia During World War I, B.A. Hons. thesis, University of Adelaide 1988.
(2) Brasse, L.: 'German Colonial Architecture in South Australia', S.A. Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture, Thesis 1975.
(3) Carmichael, L.: 'Government Sponsored Immigration – a Comparison of Two Major Periods of German Migration to South Australia, 1836—1906 and 1947—1971', Torrens College of Advanced Education 1973. (Now the University of South Australia, Underdale.)
(4) Davies, D.: 'Australian-Britons and German-Australians Public attitudes to German Settlers in South Australia 1870—1914', B.A. Hons., University of Adelaide 1975.
(5) Ferguson, B. A.: 'Patriotism in a Country Town: Mt. Gambier in the period of the Great War', B.A. Hons, Adelaide 1973. (Chapter 5 on the position of the local German-Australian community.)
(6) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Germans in the South Australian Parliament 1857—1900', B.A. Hons, University of Adelaide 1959.
(7) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'German Migration with Particular Reference to Hamburg to South Australia 1851—1884', M.A., University of Adelaide 1971.
(8) Harmstorf, I. A.: 'Guests or Fellow-countrymen: A Study in Assimilation: An Aspect of the German Community in South Australia 1836—1918', Ph.D., Flinders University 1987.
(9) Kaukas, A.: 'The Internment of German Nationals Living in Australia, in particular those living in South Australia', B.A. Hons, University of Adelaide 1983.
(10) Pech, B.: Augustus Kavel 1798—1860', B.A. Hons, University of Adelaide 1967.
(11) Krips, M.: A History of Music in South Australia before 1900', B.A. Hons, University of Adelaide 1973. (Thesis stresses the contribution of the German settlers.)
(12) Paul, P.: 'Das Barossa Deutsche', M.A., University of Adelaide 1965.
(13) Sabel, A.: 'Immanuel College at Point Pass; the Foundation years 1895—1922', Murray Park College of Advanced Education, 1973. (Now the University of South Australia, Magill).
(14) Schaefer, T.: 'The Treatment of Germans in South Australia: 1914—1918', B.A. Hons, Flinders University 1972.
(15) Scheimchen, H. L.: 'The Hermannsburg Mission Society in Australia, 1866—1895: changing missionary attitudes and their effects on the aboriginal inhabitants', B.A., University of Adelaide 1971. (16) Schulz, E.: 'Guilty till Proven Innocent', B.Ed. thesis, SACAE Salisbury 1987.
(17) Wallace, P. V.: 'Parliamentary Attitudes towards the German Population in SA 1914—1918', B.A. Hons, Flinders University 1972.
(18) Zweck, J.: 'Church and State Relationships as they Affected the Lutheran Church and its Schools in South Australia', M.Ed., University of Melbourne 1971. (Available through the University of Adelaide.)

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Miscellaneous

There are articles about individual Germans in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.

Other than those mentioned above there are numerous articles about various aspects of Lutheran life in early South Australia in the Year Books of the Lutheran Church of Australia.

In the Mortlock Library there is a large selection of family histories, many of which have been written by people of German descent. The standard of historical accuracy varies but all contain extensive and accurate genealogical tables. The German newspapers published in South Australia are also held on microfilm in this library as well as the University of Adelaide. The 'South Australiana Source Sheet No. 12', also held in the Mortlock, is an excellent guide to the published sources on Germans held in the Mortlock and Bray Library Collections.

The Adelaide Hills Tourist Information Centre, 64 Main St., Hahndorf has various books about Germans in South Australia including Barossa Bibliography by Reg Butler (Hahndorf 1992). This book contains references to many smaller works about towns in the Barossa as well as a more general bibliography.

There have from time to time also been articles about Germans in the popular press. Among these are:

(1) 'They Worked Hard and Prayed Long', The Bulletin Sydney 10/7/76.
(2) 'Pride of the Princess', Advertiser Adelaide 2/12/89.
(The story of the ship Princess Louise.)

There are many books, both descriptive and novels, written about local areas in which Germans settled. This is particularly true of Hahndorf and the Barossa Valley. These books are readily available in their local areas. Of these books the novels by Colin Thiele are the best known. Neither the descriptive books nor novels have been included in this survey.

Author's Note: Although there is some overlap in some of the articles and even, occasionally, repetition, each article has a different thrust and centres around a different theme. Both the History and German Teachers Associations have been kind enough to overview the articles for their relevance to South Australian Certificate of Education topics within the respective disciplines. I should particularly like to thank Dr Tony Stimson and Mr Geoff Howe of Eynesbury College for their help in the initial selection of articles.

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